Showing posts with label cancer. Show all posts
Showing posts with label cancer. Show all posts

Monday, February 13, 2017

Being told that you have prostate cancer can be a frightening experience. When you are told of your condition, it's common to be so overwhelmed that you neglect to ask important questions, only to think of them once you've gotten home. Understanding your illness is often the first step on the road to recovery. Here's what you need to know about your diagnosis and how the cancer is staged:

1.Diagnosing Stages

Once a man has been diagnosed with prostate cancer, his physician will perform one or more additional tests to determine the stage of cancer. These tests may include a digital rectal examination, a blood test, an MRI of the prostate or skeleton, a CT of the pelvis and abdomen, or a surgical procedure to examine lymph nodes. While not all men will need each test, most men will undergo at least one of these tests in order for their physician to better stage the cancer.

2.Stage I

If you are diagnosed with stage I prostate cancer, this means that your cancer is microscopic and only located in the prostate. Your cancer will not be large enough for your doctor to manipulate digitally. Additionally, the cancer will not be able to be detected on any digital imaging of the prostate gland. Stage I cancer of the prostate will be discovered by a needle biopsy or in tissue that is removed during other surgical procedures.

3.Stage II

In stage II prostate cancer, the cancer is still located solely in the prostate. The cancer may be found in one-half or less of one lobe of the prostate, in more than one-half of one lobe or in opposite sides of the prostate gland. As in stage I prostate cancer, stage II cancers cannot be felt during digital rectal exams, nor will the cancer be visible on any type of imaging.

4.Stage III

In stage III prostate cancer, the cancer has spread outside of the prostate to nearby tissues. The prostate specific antigen, or PSA, score can be at any level and the Gleason score will range between two and ten. Your doctor may choose to treat you with external-beam radiation therapy, hormone therapy or suggest you for a clinical trial of new therapies. Alternatively, your doctor may suggest no treatment at all and, instead, adopt a watch and see approach to your cancer.

5.Stage IV

When your prostate cancer has metastasized, or spread, to other areas of your body, you are diagnosed with stage IV cancer. Your cancer may be found in your bones, liver, lungs or lymph nodes. Stage IV prostate cancer, like other cancers that have reached the fourth stage, is considered to be the most serious. Without immediate treatment, this type of cancer will likely prove fatal. Your doctor may prescribe chemotherapy, radiation therapy, hormone therapy or a radical prostatectomy combined with other therapies.

The better you understand your diagnosis and the stage of prostate cancer that has been discovered, the better equipped you will be to partner with your oncologist to aggressively tackle your disease. If you have been diagnosed with prostate cancer, do not hesitate to approach your doctor with any questions that you may have. Your gained knowledge may just save your life.

Monday, June 02, 2014

Adipose tissue surrounding the prostate gland of men with obesity, creates favorable conditions for the progression of prostate cancer.

What is the prostate gland
The prostate gland - is musculo-glandular organ located below the bladder and surrounding the initial portion of the urethra. The main function of the prostate is to produce secretions, which is part of semen. Ducts of the prostate glands open into the urethra.

Prostate cancer
In the early stages of prostate cancer does not manifest itself. Complaints are associated with tumor spread and metastasis. At the stage the only manifestation of the lack of symptoms, allowing the disease to suspect, is to increase blood levels of prostate specific antigen (PSA). As prevention of prostate cancer for all men should conduct an annual PSA test beginning at age 45.

By increasing the size of the tumor shows the following symptoms:
  • Frequent urination
  • Difficulty urinating
  • Urinary incontinence
  • urge to urinate.
The essence of the study

Scientists have received samples of adipose tissue surrounding the prostate gland in men with benign prostatic hyperplasia, prostate cancer and prostate cancer. Regardless of prostate disease in men with obesity , there is increased activity of genes in fat cells. These genes encode proteins involved in the immune response, inflammation, growth, reproduction, and cell death.

Increase in the activity of genes leads to inhibition of the immune response and stimulates the formation of new blood vessels, which creates favorable conditions for the progression of prostate cancer. The study's authors hope that the findings will more carefully selected treatments for patients with obesity.

Saturday, May 24, 2014

In the initial stages, the breast cancer has no obvious symptoms and it vary in individuals from lumps to swelling and changes in the skin.

A lump too small which is felt does not cause any unusual changes and it is unnoticed.

However, in many cases appearance of new lump or a mass is the first sign noticed. The lump may be hard to touch with uneven edges and they are painless.

But there are cases the lump is very tender, round edged and soft. More lumps are painless.

Breast Cancer Symptoms are:
Swelling of part of the breast or all parts
Skin irritation in the breast.
Nipple pain,
Nipple begins to turn inward (inverted) slowly
Breast pain.


Appearances of changes in the nipple like redness, scaly formation,
thickening of the nipple.
A nipple discharge (bloody or clear fluid)
Changes in the skin of the breast like thickening.
Arm pit with lymph nodes or a mass or lump

It is essential to note that these symptoms always an indication for a breast cancer. But in some cases the above symptoms may be a symptom of non-cancerous conditions like in an infectious cyst.

In the early stages of the breast cancer, the cancerous tissue formation is hidden inside the tissues and it is always not possible to see the cancer by naked eyes. The changes happen in the breast may not be always cancer. A lump may come by an infection and it may disappear. The changes in the skin surface of the breast may be due to sunburn. A rash may be by an allergy. But all these symptoms to be decided for a benign or malignant type of growth.

Sunday, May 11, 2014

Tattoos have become increasingly popular over the last decade, as more and more people choose to have important symbols or meaningful images or words tattooed on them, but do they increase the risk of health problems, including cancer?

Tattoos and skin cancer

The case for

Tattoos have been linked to an increased risk of infection as a result of breaking the skin, but some health experts believe that they also increase the risk of skin cancer. Dr DJS Tula, a consultant cosmetic surgeon at the BLK Hospital in Delhi, India, said that tattoos can increase the risk of blood-borne infections, including hepatitis B and C and HIV, as well as types of skin cancer including squamous cell, melanoma and carcinoma. Dr Tula added that having a tattoo does not mean that you are going to get skin cancer, but the risk is elevated because of the ink used to create the design.

Dr Tula also added that tattoos should never been done close to moles because they make it difficult for people to spot changes in the appearance of the mole, which are a common symptom of skin cancer.

Studies published in the USA have also prompted an investigation into the chemical make-up of tattoo ink by the US Food and Drug Administration. Studies showed that some of the chemicals, including black ink benzo(a)pyrene, have been found to cause skin cancer during animal testing.

The case against

In contrast, Dr Ariel Ostad, a dermatologist and surgeon from New York, said that skin experts have been researching the impact of tattoos on the skin for several years and there is no evidence to suggest that tattoos increase the risk of skin cancer. Research involving people who have the condition has not uncovered greater prevalence of skin cancer among people with tattoos and there is also no evidence to suggest that having a tattoo after receiving treatment for skin cancer increase the risk of relapse.

Dr Ostad did support Dr Tula's comments about avoiding tattoos close to moles, stating that tattoos can mask the visible changes in the skin, which may prevent skin cancer from being diagnosed early. Early diagnosis increases survival rates significantly. Dr Ostad's advice was to leave a suitable gap around any moles to ensure that any changes are clearly visible and can be identified without any trouble.

Risk factors for skin cancer

The most important risk factor for skin cancer is sun exposure. Research also suggests that people who have fair skin have a higher risk. If you are going outside, apply sun cream (if you have fair skin that burns easily use a high factor), wear a sun hat and avoid the hottest part of the day (between 11am and 3pm). Avoid using sun beds and tanning lamps, as these use powerful UV rays and increase your risk. If you want a healthy golden glow, use self-tanning products.

Caring for tattooed skin

According to the American Academy of Dermatology, newly tattooed skin is very sensitive and you should take extra care when bathing and going out in the sun. It is also important to keep an eye on your skin and to seek medical help if you notice irritation and rashes around the tattoo. The AAD also recommended avoiding moles when choosing a location for the new tattoo and seeing a dermatologist if you notice any changes in the skin around the tattoo.

The relationship between tattoos and skin cancer is unclear. Some experts believe that tattoo ink can increase one’s risk of the condition but then others say that there is no link Further research in this area is being carried out and new evidence may become available in the coming months or years to either refute or support the claim that tattoos increase the risk of cancer.

By Richard Keane

Tuesday, March 04, 2014

Scientists from New York came to the conclusion that only one apple a day may reduce the risk of cancer of the breast. However, for this it is necessary to include in your diet and also some other products, write the foreign media.

If on apple eat in combination with other fruits and vegetables, it will significantly reduce the risk of cancer in women. It does not really matter what kind of products will be included in the diet further.

The study showed that apples contain large amounts of phenolic resin and flavonoids, which are very effective in the prevention of cancer.

An experiment was conducted on laboratory mice, the risk of cancer which was 81%. Within 24 weeks of scientists gave rodents 1, 2 or 3 portions apples. When the experiment was over, it was found that the risk of developing cancer in mice who ate one serving of apples a day, up 57% from consuming 2 servings - 50%, while those eating 3 servings - 23%.